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**Microscopic State:***N*coordinates*q*,_{1}*q*, ...,_{2}*q*_{N}, and*N*momenta*p*,_{1}*p*,...,_{2}*p*_{N}. It is point in the*phase space*.**Phase Space:**- All points in phase space

- 1.
- One-dimensional Harmonic Oscillator.

Energy conservation: This is the equation of*ellipse*(see also problem 5 from the Quiz):

- 2.
*N*particles in a cubic volume.

6

*N*-dimensional phase space.

- 3.
- Discrete Phase Space-Ising spins

General case:*N*spins:

Phase trajectory:*discrete hops*

© 1997

Wed Sep 3 22:59:36 EDT 1997